Essmanowski Stefan

Stefan Essmanowski


Stefan Essmanowski was one of about a hundred people shot in the area next to the Penal Labour Camp Treblinka I, known today as the Execution Site. The execution was carried out on March 2, 1942, around 7 p.m.

Stefan Essmanowski was born on August 8, 1898 in Miechów (Poland). In 1917, he began Polish studies at the Jagiellonian University. In the years 1919-1920 he was one of the editors of the magazine “Zdrój” (Spring). At that time, he also gathered around himself a group of expressionists with whom he collaborated. In 1922 he defended his doctoral thesis entitled “About Polish pastoral poetry writers” written under the supervision of Stanisław Windakiewicz. After graduation he move to Warsaw, where he worked as a teacher. Then, in the years 1928-1929, he lived in Poznań (Poland). Here he worked for the Tęcza (Rainbow) weekly as a technical editor. Under the pseudonym Stefan Jazgot, he published his own translations from French and English. He was a lecturer at the Drama Department of Wielkopolska Music School in Poznań.

In 1930, he moved to Warsaw – being a lecturer at the Art Directing Department of the Polish Institute of Theatre Arts – he stayed there permanently. At that time, he also dealt with literary and theatre criticism and developed his interests in Spanish and Italian literature. He was man of letters, Romanist and collaborator of “Tygodnik Ilustrowany” (The Illustrated Weekly) and “Wiadomości Literackie” (Literary News). During the occupation, he organized underground courses (as a part of underground education in Poland). Stefan Essmanowski is known for his translations, e.g. translation of Pan Tadeusz (Master Thaddeus) – Poland’s national epic poem written by Adam Mickiewicz in 1934.

Essmanowski was an activist in underground military organization – Komenda Obrońców Polski (KOP) (the Defenders of Poland Corps). In April 1941, he was arrested by the Gestapo and imprisoned in Pawiak Prison. From there, on March 2, 1942, he was brought to Treblinka I Penal Labour Camp

Source: Kartoteka Muzeum Więzienia Pawiak,…/70908/stefan-essmanowski


Translation: P.M