Treblinka II – Timeline
22 July 1942First deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto. On 22 July 1942 at 10:00 a.m., the head of the Action Reinhardt Hermann Höfle informed the president of the Jewish Council Adam Czerniaków about the “resettlement to the East”. With the help of the Jewish Ghetto Police, the Jews were gathered in the Umschlagplatz and deported to Treblinka.
23 July 1942The first transport with the people “displaced” from Warsaw is sent to the extermination camp in Treblinka. Dr Irmfried Eberl became the first commandant of the extermination camp. The construction of the extermination camp began at the beginning of June 1942. The work was carried out by Jewish workers from the ghettos and Polish prisoners from the nearby penal labour camp. By the arrival of the first transport, a building with three gas chambers and barracks for the prisoners and staff were built. A branch railway track from the siding connecting the gravel pit with the Siedlce-Sokołów Podlaski-Małkinia railway line was led to the camp.
6 August 1942Janusz Korczak and about 200 orphans from the orphan house – Dom Sierot – were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp. Janusz Korczak, or rather Henryk Goldszmit, together with other employees of the Dom Sierot (including Stefania Wilczyńska, Natalia Poz, Róża Lipiec-Jakubowska and Róża Sztokman-Azrylewicz) and about 200 wards were deported to the Treblinka extermination camp during the so-called great liquidation action of the Warsaw ghetto.
26 August 1942Odilo Globocnik, Christian Wirth and Josef Oberhauser visit the Treblinka extermination camp. Due to the chaos in Treblinka, which made it impossible to keep the existence of the extermination camp secret and the lack of expected supplies of gold and valuables, Odilo Globocnik, together with the inspector of the death camps Christian Wirth and his assistant Josef Oberhauser, personally went to the Treblinka II extermination camp for an inspection. After an investigation, Irmfried Eberl was relieved of command and the camp structures were reconstructed.
1 September 1942 Franz Stangl, formerly commander of the extermination camp in Sobibór, becomes the second commandant of the Treblinka II extermination camp. After Irmfried Eberl’s dismissal, Franz Stangl took over this position. His main task after taking up the post of commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp was to improve, reorganise and conceal the killing process at Treblinka. To this end, Stangl commissioned, among others, the construction of a wooden dummy station in order to deceive and disorganise the people who came here.
turn of February and March 1943Visit of people responsible for the extermination process of the Jewish population. In the Treblinka II extermination camp a special grate was built where bodies were burned to cover up the traces of genocide. This was caused, among others, by the overcrowding of mass graves from which the smell of decaying bodies emerged and the discovery of mass graves in the Katyn forests. These factors convinced the Germans of the necessity of getting rid of the corpses as soon as possible.
2 August 1943The outbreak of the uprising in the extermination camp. The prisoners, aware of the fact that the SS will soon kill them – staged a revolt. Preparation of the uprising lasted several months and erupted on 2 August 1943. Prisoners, with an extra key made, seized weapons from the camp armoury, set fire to barracks and stormed the main gate of the camp. The uprising lasted 20-30 minutes, of which shooting continued for about 10 minutes. About 200 prisoners escaped successfully, but at most 100 people survived the war. The outbreak of the uprising stopped transports and murders in the gas chambers for about a month.
23 August 1943The last Jewish transport to the death camp. All the deportees were Jews from Białystok. The fire caused by the prisoners of the extermination camp destroyed part of the camp structures, but the prisoners did not manage to destroy the gas chambers. After the revolt was contained, transports with “displaced people” were still being sent to the death camp.
17 November 1943Liquidation of the extermination camp. After the uprising, the gradual liquidation of the camp began. All camp structures were dismantled. A farmhouse was built for a Ukrainian family; the ground was ploughed and planted with lupine. 25-30 prisoners from the last unit, Restkommando, were shot at the edge of the forest. In the second half of July 1944, before the arrival of the Red Army, the Ukrainian family living in the area of the extermination camp set fire to a house with farm buildings and evacuated towards Warsaw.